Without this kind of knowledge, it is difficult to plan teaching that connects various subjects. This chapter offers a theoretical contribution to pinpointing the challenges of implementing CI in schoolwork from the subject teachers’ perspective. Finally, his examples come mostly from secondary schools. Today, the implementation of CI is explicitly compulsory for all Finnish schools. This is the case in teacher education programs, such as in Finnish subject teacher education, in which student teachers study scientific disciplines at the university level and are educated as specialists in certain disciplines and then equipped with pedagogical knowledge. In the learning process, pupils are supported to structure and expand their worldview (, p. 32). This kind of knowledge also means understanding what makes learning of certain kinds of content difficult and what the common misconceptions are. Once the process is completed from beginning to end, the whole idea of CI is likely to be better comprehended. First, integration can be achieved through activities such as theme days, events, campaigns, study visits, or school camps. The other two are lateral and vertical curriculum knowledge. CI played a strong role in the first Finnish core curriculum, written for comprehensive schools in 1970. However, Lopes and Macedo  claim that there is not necessarily a relationship between scientific disciplines and school subjects. That being said, we can conclude that if CI is implemented in a way that a theme is selected about which teachers do not have enough content knowledge, there is no chance of developing adequate pedagogical content knowledge, and therefore, the process is likely to fail. For CI to be successful, its purpose has to be clearly comprehended. 2. At that point, it becomes integrative pedagogical content knowledge. By Aigerim Mynbayeva, Zukhra Sadvakassova and Bakhytkul Akshalova. நாகராஜன்] "B.Ed 2nd Year" No Customer Reviews . Second, longer integrated study modules can be created around a theme by combining the perspectives of various subjects. Earlier curricula have presented CI as a general objective to be considered by teachers in planning their teaching. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. A subject-based curriculum is the usual way of arranging schoolwork in Finland. Shulman claims that in student-centered learning, the importance of the teacher’s grasp of the study content becomes even greater than in teacher-centered approaches. Although Shulman sees teachers’ ability to relate the content knowledge of a subject(s) to other subjects as a part of content knowledge, it is hard to guarantee that teachers have the necessary capabilities to do that. CI, however, does not have this kind of interest group behind it. Rich, versatile teaching then turns into rigidly planned, inflexible pedagogy. Mikko A. Niemelä and Kirsi Tirri (March 28th 2018). © 2018 The Author(s). Curriculum at National level – NCF 2005 and NCFTE 2009 (General Introduction). Shulman notes that the student-centered approaches require a strong capacity for sympathetic interpretation and transformation of content into representations . The relation between content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge is not one-way. It would be practically impossible for a teacher to know a discipline so thoroughly and coherently that s/he could simply transform it into a school subject . In some forms of CI, cross-subject collaboration is inevitable, and the experience with other teachers’ subjects makes co-teaching and collaborative planning in CI more manageable. The concept of wicked problems refers to complicated issues that are hard to define, do not have a single solution, and are usually studied in various scientific fields. They represent school subjects as autonomous communities that are socio-politically constructed and constantly mutating. However, subject teachers cannot be an expert in all subjects. In Finnish primary schools, teachers are usually giving instruction in the majority of the subjects, but in secondary schools, only one or a few subjects. Planning of a school curriculum is in itself one example of a wicked problem . Another possibility is to use the methods of co-teaching, collaborating with other teachers, who combine the special pedagogical content knowledge of their respective subjects. The answers to fundamental questions of our age or of individuals seeking guidance in living must be sought in multiple sources. CI emphasizes the communal aspect of schoolwork. According to Stengel , Shulman assumes that disciplines precede school subjects and that the task of teachers is to modify disciplinary content knowledge into learnable form, i.e., transform it into a school subject. These are admirable objectives, but it can be asked how far this ideal is from the current reality of schools and teacher education. Lee Shulman has described the development of teacher education as a process in which pedagogical knowledge has become more and more openly acknowledged as essential competence along with subject matter content knowledge. The core curriculum offers two concrete examples of integration structured on differentiated subjects . What is the importance of curriculum in Indian education? Vertical curriculum knowledge in turn refers to teachers’ knowledge of what has been previously taught in one’s subject(s) and what will be taught in the future . At present, every comprehensive school in Finland is planning and implementing its own integrated learning modules. However, each can be realized independently. To apply CI successfully, student teachers need to have at least preliminary knowledge of contents of subjects they are not teaching themselves. Without knowledge of these subcultures, cross-curricular coordination can be restricted. Shulman claims that normative and theoretical knowledge of ends, purposes, and values of education is perhaps the most important part of teachers’ scholarly knowledge. Content knowledge refers to teachers’ awareness of the facts and the structure of their subject(s). This means that the understanding of pedagogical content knowledge cannot be bound only to subjects, but also involves building bridges between subjects. Knowledge and Curriculum Objectives: ... differentiations between curriculum framework, curriculum ,syllabus and text books; facets of core curriculum in Indian context.
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